We posted a while back about early efforts to harness the power of waves. You may also be interested to learn more about the 19th century work of Mouchot and Ericsson, early pioneers of solar thermal concentrators CSP solar thermal power.
Before World War II Europe The Modernist movement in architecture was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of Functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials.
The Viennese architect Adolf Loos opposed the use of any ornament at all and designed purist compositions of bald, functional blocks such as the Steiner House at Viennaone of the first private houses of reinforced concrete. Behrens strongly affected three great architects who worked in his office: In GermanyGropius followed a mechanistic direction.
His Fagus Works factory at Alfeld-an-der-Leine in Germany and the Werkbund exposition building at the Cologne exhibition had been models of industrial architecture in which vigorous forms were enclosed by masonry and glass; the effect of these buildings was gained by the use of steel frames, strong silhouette, and the logic of their plans.
There were no historical influences or expressions of local landscape, traditions, or materials. The beauty of the buildings derived from adapting form to a technological culture. Later called the Bauhausit became the most important centre of modern design until the Nazi s closed it in While he was at Weimar, Gropius developed a firm philosophy about architecture and education, which he announced in The aim of the visual artshe said, is to create a complete, homogeneous physical environment in which all the arts have their place.
Architects, sculptors, furniture makers, and painters must learn practical crafts and obtain knowledge of tools, materials, and forms; they must become acquainted with the machine and attempt to use it in solving the social problems of an industrial society.
At the Bauhaus, aesthetic investigations into space, colour, construction, and elementary forms were flavoured by Cubism and Constructivism. Moving the school to Dessau inGropius designed the pioneering new Bauhaus —26 in which steel frames and glass walls provided workshops within severely Cubistic buildings.
With insight, Garnier developed a comprehensive scheme for residential neighbourhoods, transportation terminals, schools, and industrial centres, and his plan became a major influential scheme for 20th-century urban design.
Garnier received no mandate to build such a city, but his town hall at Boulogne-Billancourt —34 recalled the promise he had shown, though it was not so innovative and masterful as might have been expected.
He conceived of the city as a symbol of the new technological age. It was an affirmative environment for the future, however, in opposition to the negating inhuman Expressionistic city of the future conceived by Fritz Lang in the film classic Metropolis.
The second generation of Expressionists centred their activities in postwar Germany and The Netherlands. As Germany was the centre of Expressionism, Paris was the stronghold of the advocates of a new vision of space, Cubismwhich Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso developed about Forms were dismembered into their faceted components; angular forms, interpenetrated planes, transparencies, and diverse impressions were recorded as though seen simultaneously.
Soon architectural reflections of the Cubist aesthetic appeared internationally.
Interior spaces were defined by thin, discontinuous planes and glass walls; supports were reduced to slender metal columns, machine-finished and without ornamentation; and Cubistic voids and masses were arranged programmatically in asymmetric compositions.
The Dutch De Stijl movement was influenced by Cubism, although it sought a greater abstract purity in its geometric formalism.
Meanwhile Oud collaborated with van Doesburg for a time and vigorously proclaimed the new style in housing developments he built at Rotterdam afterHook of Holland —27and Stuttgart, Germany Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
19th Century America. Updated July 30, JUMP TO.. Primary Documents - Timelines - Maps, - From Jefferson to the coming of the Civil War, Manifest Destiny & the Wild West, Industrial Revolution, Women's Rights, Inventions & Railroad History, The Gilded Age, Spanish-American War & Imperialism, The Progressive Era - Populism, Various Misc.
Topics. 18th century Cowkeepers - summary of essays. Websites. Whilst I was writing this essay I received an email from the Gale academic website, saying that individual researchers can now get free access to the 10% of the British Library's collection of 19th century newspapers digitised on their website.
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Jan 24, · President Obama is on the warpath, attacking capitalism, but Republican candidates haven’t offered much of a counter-attack. This is a bit of a mystery, since the case for capitalism is.