The Future of Protein: Patrick Caughill The technology behind lab-cultured meat products is rapidly advancing. When we start seeing these kinds of products being sold right alongside their traditionally farmed cousins, we should look more at the contentious topic of the impact livestock farming has on the environment. Further, "each year 13 billion hectares of forest area are lost due to land conversion for agricultural uses as pastures or cropland, for both food and livestock feed crop production.
Several years of study have gone into this page to present a hopefully unbiased examination of the issue of global warming. This is a "big picture" analysis of the scientific studies related to global climate change. Recently, 86 evangelical leaders signed an initiative urging the adoption of legislation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions see Evangelical Leaders Join Global Warming Initiative.
Are these suggestions the best way to address the global warming issue? Rich Deem Is the world getting warmer and, if so, are the actions of mankind to blame for these temperature increases?
The burning of fossil fuels converts carbon in the biomass into carbon dioxide CO2which is a "greenhouse" gas. This and other greenhouse gases such as methane tend to trap energy from the Sun on the earth.
Many scientists have sounded the alarm that we must reduce our use of fossil fuels.
Others, including a number of prominent conservatives, have said that we have little to worry about. This page examines the basic questions and the answers we are getting from scientific studies, including historical and reconstructed values for greenhouse gases, temperature, and other variables that impact earth's climate.
In addition, we will examine some of the theory behind the science that causes most scientists to be concerned. Since this page is written at a lay level, we are not going to examine the details involved in climate modeling that concerns most scientists. However, some background is necessary in order to understand what the fuss is about.
By examining the earth's rocks and minerals, scientists have determined that liquid water was probably on the earth as early as 4.
However, the amount of energy received from the Sun is dependent upon the earth's orbit specifically, its eccentricity, precession, and tiltwhich changes slightly at regular intervals. Solar energy is partly absorbed and partly reflected by the earth.
In addition, some of the energy absorbed by the earth is radiated back into space. The net difference in energy absorbed vs. The composition of the atmosphere greatly affects how much energy from the Sun is radiated back into space.
Minor components, water vapor and carbon dioxide, are greenhouse gases that reduce the amount of the earth's energy that radiates back into space.
Since the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is relatively constant, scientists' main concern is the amount of carbon dioxide, which is produced by burning of fossil fuels and wood, and by decomposition of biologically-produced materials a significant amount of which is due to deforestation.
Industrialization of most of the world has resulted in a rapid increase in the burning of fossil fuels, which is greatly increasing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. Scientists are concerned that increases in the amount of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide will result in worldwide temperature increases that will affect the ecosystems of the planet.
In the short-term, several species would be expected to become extinct. Ultimately, it is possible that a runaway greenhouse effect could make the earth uninhabitable by all species including us.
First, let's look at what is happening with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Atmospheric carbon dioxide Figure 1. CO2 Levels for the LastYears The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has varied greatly over time, from a recent high of more than parts-per-million ppm 25 million years ago, to a low of about ppm during several periods of glaciation over the pastyears Figure 1.
The inset small graph in upper right of figure 1 shows the atmospheric levels of CO2 for the last 50 years. Although the cycles of CO2 levels approximatelyyears apart are naturally on a rise from the last ice age, the spike is dramatically higher than any levels seen over the lastyears.
Annual Carbon Emissions since Humans have been changing the face of the earth for thousands of years. Some of these changes include clearing the land for agriculture and burning carbon sources for heat. As the human population began to increase rapidly, these "insignificant" changes began to have global impact.
Figure 2 shows annual carbon emissions since The extensive use of petroleum and natural gas after World War II has rapidly increased the amount of these carbon emissions within the last 50 years. These data strongly suggest that the rapid increase of CO2 in the last century is not the result of a natural process.
Annual Carbon Emissions vs. Actually, we are producing much more CO2 than is showing up in the atmosphere Figure 3. The blue line at right shows the amount of carbon emissions over time compared to the red line, which is the average amount of carbon showing up in the atmosphere.
As can be seen, only about half of carbon emissions can be found in the atmosphere. What happens to the rest? Originally, researchers had thought that all the extra carbon dissolved in the oceans.
However further study revealed that the oceans were not as efficient carbon sinks as previously thought. One is the "fertilization effect," that higher CO2 levels have upon photosynthesis.Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage - New Edition [Kenneth S.
Deffeyes] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In , Kenneth Deffeyes made a grim prediction: world oil production would reach a peak within the next decade--and there was nothing anyone could do to stop it. Deffeyes's claim echoed the work of geophysicist M. King Hubbert.
The technology behind lab-cultured meat products is rapidly advancing. When we start seeing these kinds of products being sold right alongside their traditionally farmed cousins, we should look more at the contentious topic of the impact livestock farming has on the environment. Sep 15, · The Evolution and Use of the World’s Energy Systems.
Every minute enough of the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s surface to meet the world’s energy demands for a whole year. Jun 25, · The short answer to the question posed is.a lot. Or at least way more than many groups and people out there want you to believe.
Investing On The Hubbert Curve "The noted geophysicist M. King Hubbert () was the first man to effectively apply principles of geology, physics and mathematics (in combination) to the projection of future oil production from the U.S. reserve base. Sep 15, · The Evolution and Use of the World’s Energy Systems. Every minute enough of the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s surface to meet the world’s energy demands for a whole year. Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage - New Edition [Kenneth S. Deffeyes] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In , Kenneth Deffeyes made a grim prediction: world oil production would reach a peak within the next decade--and there was nothing anyone could do to stop it. Deffeyes's claim echoed the work of geophysicist M. King Hubbert.
Today, the world . Future world oil supplies, L. F. Ivanhoe, energy, oil, Hubbert, petroleum, natural gas, science, ecology, economics, environment, politics.
Sep 08, · A Shell geophysicist named M. King Hubbert reached mythological status for accurately predicting the U.S. oil production peak. But most people .