Power is the capacity to participate knowingly in change which is the continuous patterning of the human-environment field manifest as awareness, choice, freedom to act intentionally and involvement in creating change. As the PKPCT is used in the present study, a more detailed analysis of the tool and its use in existing studies will be given later.
Knowledge development in the discipline of nursing has generated and continues to generate philosophical, theoretical, and scientific knowledge, which serve as a basis for further reflections, investigations, and refinement, and as a source of new knowledge.
In addition, nursing theory development has been related to borrowed or shared theories from or with other disciplines such as anthropology, education, sociology, and psychology. In this period, the emphasis was placed on the integration of theories from other Factor isolating theory into the discipline of nursing, on the analyses of nursing practice in search of a theoretical framework, and on the development of a conceptual framework that could serve as a foundation for theory development Newman, Consequently, nursing literature is replete with suggestions that nursing theories must be congruent with a broad perspective of the discipline of nursing to be considered acceptable nursing theories.
To view a nursing theory from a broad perspective means to take into consideration consensus on the four domain concepts of interest to the discipline of nursing which represent the nursing metaparadigm: These interrelationships are described by scholars in terms of the focus given by the discipline of nursing.
Thus, a theory is a coherent set of propositions and statements that describe factor-isolatingexplain factor-relatingand predict situation-relating phenomena as well as prescribe situation-producing actions toward goals. According to Barnumtheories may be classified as descriptive or exploratory.
Descriptive theories observe a phenomenon and identify its elements or events.
Meleis stated that theories are composed of concepts connected to the phenomena of concern to a discipline. These concepts relate to each other in order to comprise theoretical statements. The objective of theory is to formulate a minimum set of generalizations that allow a discipline to explain a maximum number of observable relationships among variables.
Factor isolating theory view is congruent with Factor isolating theory et al. Nursing Theory Development Nursing theories are very important for guiding education, research, and practice as well as for strengthening the links among those areas. Nursing theories are necessary and very important for the discipline of nursing; they define the body of nursing knowledge, promote further knowledge development, establish nursing as a profession, and aim to give directions to nursing practice.
Additionally, Meleis stated that nursing theory provides insights about nursing practice situations and research and gives direction to nursing practice. Nursing theories are normally derived from conceptual models in which the nursing metaparadigm phenomena are clearly identified Fawcett, For this reason, the conceptual model is considered a precursor of nursing theory Peterson, ; Fawcet A conceptual model of nursing is a set of abstract concepts and propositions that are integrated into a meaningful configuration and represent an involvement in theoretical formulations by describing nursing phenomena and their interrelationships in abstract terms Fawcett, Consequently, it is implied that the concepts, definitions, and propositions of a nursing theory are derived from a nursing conceptual model.
Nursing theories vary in scope; that is, they vary in the level of abstraction. Theories that are broader in scope are called grand range theories.
Thus, they can easily be taken to the operational level Wilson, ; they are theories that describe, explain, and predict phenomena of concern to nursing as well as prescribe actions in response to those phenomena. Both grand and middle range theories are important for knowledge development in the discipline of nursing.
Grand range theories are important to provide a larger picture of the phenomena. However, a deeper understanding about the relationships among those phenomena is provided by middle range theories. Thus, the discipline of nursing should concentrate its efforts in developing more middle range theories, which are able to direct research and practice as well as to strengthen the linkage among those areas theory, research, and practice.
Speedy supported this view. She noted that the majority of nursing scholars have suggested that theories guide practice, that practice is a source of theory development, and that theories and practice inform each other.
In addition, specialized knowledge defines the particular competence of a group, establishes a legitimate basis for the authority of the group, provides status and prestige, and facilitates the socialization of new members into the group Carper, Theorists have classified knowledge development in different ways.
According to Johnsonknowledge development consists of knowledge of order describing and explaining the relations of physical, biological, and social objects and events — this order can be discovered and understood ; knowledge of disorder providing information to understand the events that pose a threat to well-being or survival of the individual or society, or which are deemed undesirable for some other reason ; and knowledge of control facilitating a prescriptive course of action, which when executed, changes the sequence of events in a preferred way and toward desired outcomes.
Schultz and Meleis asserted that the discipline of nursing uses three types of knowledge: Knowledge development in the discipline of nursing involves using all these types of knowledge in order to describe, explain, predict, and control nursing situations.
The classification of knowledge is a way to organize and structure the ways of knowing. Goal of Nursing Knowledge Development Knowledge development in nursing was initiated by Florence Nightingale in the nineteenth century. Between the nineteenth century and today, many different foci and approaches have been used for knowledge development in the discipline of nursing, such as case studies to understand nursing interventions, educational studies to determine the most effective educational preparation for nurses, the development of conceptual models and theories to guide nursing practice, and theories testing to validate their usefulness in nursing practice.
The efforts to develop a scientific body of nursing knowledge to guide nursing practice have resulted in dialogue aimed to clarify what nursing science is and how to develop such knowledge Crawford et al.
To establish nursing as a profession and a science, it was necessary to define its body of knowledge. Thus, numerous discussions and debates took place about the nature and origin of nursing knowledge, the types of knowledge necessary to the discipline of nursing, the domains of nursing, the methods that should be used for developing nursing knowledge, and the criteria that should be used for the validation of nursing knowledge.
These discussions and debates were very important not only in clarifying and understanding the different points of view of the members of the discipline of nursing, but also in leading to further discussions and debates about unresolved issues.Thus, a theory is a coherent set of propositions and statements that describe (factor-isolating), explain (factor-relating), and predict (situation-relating) phenomena as well as prescribe (situation-producing) actions toward goals.
Thus, a theory is a coherent set of propositions and statements that describe (factor-isolating), explain (factor-relating), and predict (situation-relating) phenomena as well as prescribe (situation-producing) actions toward goals. Common factors theory, A summary of research in suggested that % of variance in therapy outcome was due to the common factor of goal consensus/collaboration, 9% was due to empathy, % was due to therapeutic alliance, % was due to positive regard/affirmation.
(Factor-Isolating Theories) - To know the properties and workings of a discipline. - main purpose is to present a phenomena based on the five senses together with their corresponding meaning.
EXPLANATORY THEORIES (Factor-Relating Theories) - present /5(10). Mar 29, · Best Answer: Four Levels of Nursing Theory Practice Theory traces the outline for nursing practice.
The objectives and actions are set to meet specific objectives. There are four steps in the development of the Practice Theory, which are, factor isolating, factor relating, situation relating and situation Status: Resolved.
Apr 02, · Four steps in the development of practice theories are: factor isolating, factor relating, situation relating, and situation producing control. In nursing, theories can also be analyzed by types which are needs, interaction, outcome, and humanistic-focused.