In the Beginning Inaffirmative action became an inflammatory public issue. But what did this mandate amount to?
A large percentage of White workers will lose out if affirmative action is continued. Government statistics do not support this myth. According to the U.
Commerce Department, there are 2. Bureau of the Census, Furthermore, affirmative action pertains only to job-qualified applicants, so the actual percentage of affected Whites would be even smaller. The main sources of job loss among White workers have to do with factory relocations and labor contracting outside the United States, computerization and automation, and corporate downsizing Ivins, If Jewish people and Asian Americans can rapidly advance economically, African Americans should be able to do the same.
This comparison ignores the unique history of discrimination against Black people in America. Over the past four centuries, Black history has included nearly years of slavery, years of legalized discrimination, and only 50 years of anything else.
Jews and Asians, on the other hand, are populations that immigrated to North America and included doctors, lawyers, professors, and entrepreneurs among their ranks.
Moreover, European Jews are able to function as part of the White majority. To expect Blacks to show the same upward mobility as Jews and Asians is to deny the historical and social reality that Black people face.
The problem with this myth is that it uses the same word -- discrimination -- to describe two very different things. Job discrimination is grounded in prejudice and exclusion, whereas affirmative action is an effort to overcome prejudicial treatment through inclusion.
The most effective way to cure society of exclusionary practices is to make special efforts at inclusion, which is exactly what affirmative action does. The logic of affirmative action is no different than the logic of treating a nutritional deficiency with vitamin supplements.
Affirmative action tends to undermine the self-esteem of women and racial minorities. For instance, a Gallup poll asked employed Blacks and employed White women whether they had ever felt others questioned their abilities because of affirmative action Roper Center for Public Opinion, c.
Indeed, in many cases affirmative action may actually raise the self-esteem of women and minorities by providing them with employment and opportunities for advancement.
Affirmative action is nothing more than an attempt at social engineering by liberal Democrats. In truth, affirmative action programs have spanned a dozen different presidential administrations -- seven Republican and five Democratic.
President George Bush also enthusiastically signed the Civil Rights Act ofwhich formally endorsed the principle of affirmative action.
Thus, affirmative action has traditionally enjoyed the support of Republicans as well as Democrats. Support for affirmative action means support for preferential selection procedures that favor unqualified candidates over qualified candidates. Actually, most supporters of affirmative action oppose this type of preferential selection.
Preferential selection procedures can be ordered along the following continuum: Selection among equally qualified candidates. The mildest form of affirmative action selection occurs when a female or minority candidate is chosen from a pool of equally qualified applicants e.
Survey research suggests that three-quarters of the public does not see this type of affirmative action as discriminatory Roper Center for Public Opinion, d. Selection among comparable candidates.
A somewhat stronger form occurs when female or minority candidates are roughly comparable to other candidates e. The logic here is similar to the logic of selecting among equally qualified candidates; all that is needed is an understanding that, for example, predictions based on an SAT score of are virtually indistinguishable from predictions based on an SAT score of Selection among unequal candidates.
A still stronger form of affirmative action occurs when qualified female or minority candidates are chosen over candidates whose records are better by a substantial amount. Selection among qualified and unqualified candidates.Affirmative Action Advances Racial Equality in Education. By TCU By Alex Turner of TCU Daily Skiff.
Affirmative action benefits anyone who is . RACE, CULTURE, AND EQUALITY 1 by Thomas Sowell. During the 15 years that I spent researching and writing my recently completed trilogy on racial and cultural issues, 2 I was struck again and again with how common huge disparities in income and wealth have been for centuries, in countries around the world-- and yet how each country regards its own particular disparities as unusual, if not unique.
Diversity is a buzz word we keep hearing more and more, especially in the workplace.
On the surface the concept appears warm and fuzzy, conjuring up images of all colours, creeds and sexualities linking arms, dancing and singing Kumbaya as productivity and sales skyrocket thanks to .
ARGUING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Sandel describes the court case of a white woman named Cheryl Hopwood who was denied admission to a Texas law school, even though she had higher grades and test scores than some of the minority applicants who were admitted. I. REPORTING. This Directive requires each agency to report annually on the status of activities undertaken pursuant to its equal employment opportunity program under Title VII and activities undertaken pursuant to its affirmative action obligations under the Rehabilitation Act.
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