Criminology term paper

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Criminology term paper

Share The Arousal-Seeking Behavioral Theory has been popular in aspects of both psychology and sociology. It was originated by Lindsley and further researched by many other psychologists and sociologists. According to Lee, every person tries to reach an optimum level of arousal from the environment and too little stimulation causes a person to be bored while too much stimulation causes anxiety.

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Anxiety would lead to sensation seeking. At the center of this theory lies the fact that sensation seekers are more biologically and environmentally prone to engage in deviant activities and to take illicit drugs.

Criminology term paper to research done by Milessensation seeking is a great predictor of drug use and abuse, because those who are sensation seekers also tend to be risk takers.

According to this theory, obtaining thrills and a demonstration of competence are the main crime motivators, usually with little to no eonomic gain Katz, A twin study performed by Donna Miles, Marianne Van hljjylg hc l;x;Den Bree, Anne Gupman, and other researchers showed that while genetic factors had a strong influence in Criminology term paper personality traits, such as risk-taking, environmental and family factors had a great influence on others, such as sexual promiscuity; for marijuana use, environmental and genetic factors have proven to be equally important Personality traits such as thrill seeking and impulsivity vs.

The CPI scale has been found to be very relevant when measuring personality traits such as impulsivity. Impulsivity is one of the most important aspects of the Arousal-Seeking Behavioral Theory, because criminologists believe that impulsivity warrants the most research attention of all psychological factors implicated in juvenile delinquency and crime.

Impulsivity refers to the inability or unwillingness of a person to think of the consequences of their behavior before making a decision to act or having time to make their decision.

It is simply a lack of premeditation. A person who is impulsive may lack the ability to correctly process cognitive information for example, finish a job or paper, easily bored. Impulsivity also plays a huge role in assessing different forms of psychopathology. Some researchers argue that even though sensation seeking is caused by both genetic and environmental factors, the main cause for such behavior are low levels of platelet monoamine oxidase MAO activity in the brain.

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According to research done on a male criminal population in Sweden, many criminal offenders who are have committed dangerous and violent crimes and are diagnosed as psychopaths, have low levels of platelet MAO activity in their brain.

Researchers also argue that both high and low platelet monoamine oxidase activity can cause different forms of deviance; people with a high amount of MAO activity can be categorized as anxiety-related disordered and having schizoid personality traits Longato-Stadler, af Klinteberg et al.

In their research, Longato-Stadler et al. More recently, they have been able to test this biological part of the theory due to advances in technology; devices like the EEG Electroencephalograph have been successful at measuring different arousal levels in parts of the brain.

While some researchers believe that sensation seeking and impulsive behavior are more biological than environmental, others believe that these two personality traits are more likely to be congruent with learning and cognitive processes.

Criminology term paper

They also propose that delinquent behavior is produced in the seeking of pleasure and immediate gratification, usually with no regards for future consequences or punishments. There are, however, many non-economic reinforcements that reward delinquent behavior, such as the thrill and excitement and respect from peers who are probably also delinquent These researchers also argue that people who are sensation seekers and thrill seekers can also have a positive societal outcome, such as creativity and are usually adventurous.

Those people may choose more socially approved forms of stimulation such as traveling, skydiving and bungee jumping to receive the same type of immediate gratification as delinquents do.

Arguments about environment vs. For example, a person who is taking drugs might initially participate for the thrill and excitement of the behavior, but they will continue the behavior because of the instant pleasure that they receive due to the pharmacological effects of the drug they are taking.

Researchers in this experiment have concluded that even though thrill seeking and impulsivity are likely to cause the initial act of deviance, immediate gratification and pleasurable sensations work to maintain and reinforce habitual delinquency Wood, Cochran et al, Even though the arousal theory can explain different types of deviant behavior, it appears to best explain drug, alcohol or tobacco use.

Researchers have found strong correlations with personality traits that include sensation seeking, impulsiveness and extraversion to drug abuse. This theory can distinguish those people who seek immediate gratification and the physiological stimulation that comes with consuming drugs.

Criminology term paper

Wood, Cochran et al. Their results show that among those respondents, most had admitted to the use of drugs.This article includes everything you need for writing an interesting essay: Easy technology topics with links to videos, articles, and research to start your paper.

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