The Socio-economic Impact of Child Malnutrition in Africa 20 February Article The Socio-economic Impact of Child Malnutrition in Africa For Africa to benefit from the demographic dividend requires that the increase in the working-age population be complemented by quality human growth. The COHA study shows how much we stand to gain in terms of productivity if we take action on nutrition today. The Cost of Hunger in Africa — a study. COHA is a multi-country study aimed at estimating the economic and social impact of child malnutrition in Africa.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Malnutrition is estimated to contribute to more than one third of all child deaths, although it is rarely listed as the direct cause.
Poverty remains the major Child malnutrition in africa to this ill. The vicious cycle of poverty, disease and illness aggravates this situation. Grooming undernourished children causes children to start life at mentally sub optimal levels.
This becomes a serious developmental threat. Lack of education especially amongst women disadvantages children, especially as far as healthy practices like breastfeeding and child healthy foods are concerned. Adverse climatic conditions have also played significant roles like droughts, poor soils and deforestation.
Sociocultural barriers are major hindrances in some communities, with female children usually being the most affected. Corruption and lack of government interest and investment are key players that must be addressed to solve this problem.
A multisectorial approach is vital in tackling this problem. Improvement in government policy, fight against corruption, adopting a horizontal approach in implementing programmes at community level must be recognized. Genetically modified foods to increase food production and to survive adverse climatic conditions could be gateways in solving these problems.
Socio cultural peculiarities of each community are an essential base line consideration for the implementation of any nutrition health promotion programs.
Malnutrition, Sub—Saharan Africa, corruption, multisectorial approach Introduction Malnutrition is estimated to contribute to more than one third of all child deaths, although it is rarely listed as the direct cause [ 1 ].
Protein-energy malnutrition PEMfirst described in the s, is observed most frequently in developing countries but has been described with increasing frequency in hospitalized and chronically ill children in the United States [ 4 ].
Poor environmental conditions may increase insect and protozoan infections and also contribute to environmental deficiencies in micronutrients. Overpopulation, more commonly seen in developing countries, can reduce food adequacy, leading to inadequate food intake or intake of foods of poor nutritional quality and quantity.
Conversely, the effects of malnutrition on individuals can create and maintain poverty, which can further hamper economic and social development [ 3 ]. This is explained with children starting life with low intellectual quotients and being impossible later to offer the best of their expected intellectual abilities.
The distinction between the two forms of PEM is based on the presence of edema kwashiorkor or absence of edema marasmus. Marasmus involves inadequate intake of protein and calories, whereas a child with kwashiorkor has fair-to-normal calorie intake with inadequate protein intake.
Although significant clinical differences between kwashiorkor and marasmus are noted, some studies suggest that marasmus represents an adaptation to starvation whereas kwashiorkor represents a dys-adaptation to starvation.
In addition to PEM, children may be affected by micronutrient deficiencies, which also have a detrimental effect on growth and development. The most common and clinically significant micronutrient deficiencies in children and childbearing women throughout the world include deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A and are estimated to affect as many as two billion people.
Although fortification programs have helped diminish deficiencies of iodine and vitamin A in individuals in the United States, these deficiencies remain a significant cause of morbidity in developing countries, whereas deficiencies of vitamin C, B, and D have improved in recent years.
Micronutrient deficiencies and protein and calorie deficiencies must be addressed for optimal growth and development to be attained in these individuals. The search was limited to articles published in and after There are million children in sub-Saharan Africa who suffer from acute malnutrition (World Bank).
Between and , the number of stunted children under 5 worldwide declined from million to million. According to the WHO Regional Director for Africa Dr Matshidiso Moeti, “The numbers and trends highlighted in the report show that we need to work harder to avoid the long-term consequences of malnutrition and poor health on our children’s future prosperity, including the increased risk of diet-related noncommunicable diseases such as.
Prevent acute malnutrition through large scale emergency feeding programs when there is a lack of food in Africa. Provide sustenance to millions of children in the grips of famines and hunger crises.
Prevent and overcome chronic malnutrition through breastfeeding support programs. Children are the most affected by this problem, especially young children. South Africa's problem of malnutrition is unique to other countries' malnutrition problems because South Africa is a primarily young country, with one third .
Nearly half of child and infant deaths on the continent are attributed to inadequate nutrition; furthermore, lack of food causes children to be vulnerable to many diseases.
Yet approaches to relieving malnutrition in African children are often disorganized or . Proper nutrition is a powerful good: children who are well nourished are more likely to be healthy, productive and able to learn. Malnutrition is, by the same logic, devastating. It blunts intellect, saps productivity, and perpetuates poverty for any family and society it touches.